FOR STONE AGE ARTIFACTS AND HISTORICAL FACTS
*SUGGESTED VIEWING  *ITEMS FOR SALE
Abstract image of bison skull.

MODERN TIMES 
(A.D. 1912 to A.D. 2000)

   "Modern Times," refers to the study of lithic technology in reference to today's flintknappers who make stone artifacts in a wide variety of both standard and unique forms. Some flintknappers are making items with purely artistic themes in mind while others are copying ancient stone tool manufacturing techniques. As a hobby and as a vocation flintknapping has been expanding steadily since the 1970's at a fairly rapid pace. It has been estimated that approximately 1.5 million points are made each year. Many of these artifacts are made to look ancient by applying various patination techniques and sold to collectors. Looking at them from strictly an artistic viewpoint, some of today's modern-made points are the most beautifully flaked stone artifacts ever crafted since flintknapping began millions of years ago.

    "A SHORT HISTORY OF FLINTKNAPPING," Illustrations and a basic description of 3 million years of stone tool making that continues too today's flintknapped art pieces.

   AMERICAN FLAG GLASS SPEAR POINT---A glass spear point made from red, white and blue glass that was blended together to look like an American flag.

   ARTIFACTS OF THE WORLD POSTER---Artifacts from Paleolithic to Modern Times.

   AUCTIONING THE FRANKE COLLECTION---An example of an auction of prehistoric artifacts in the United States.

  *Bob "Big Flint" Hunt's large blades--Two examples of Bob's large blades made of Edwards Plateau flint.

  *BOB THOMAS'S AGEE POINTS---Examples of some of Bob Thomas's Agee points and one Hayes point.

  DAN THEUS---Several examples of his beautiful Clovis points and large Cumberland points.

   DAN THEUS---Two points made from agatized fossil dinosaur bone and a coprolite.

    DAN THEUS---A replicated copy of the crocodile canoe Mayan eccentric showing rebirth of the maize god.

    DAN THEUS---Several examples of Halloween "ghost art." Five ghosts made from glass and one Jasper pumpkin.

 *D.C. Waldorf's Danish Dagger's--Four different types of Danish daggers made by Dave Waldorf are illustrated, including 2 type IV's.

  D.C. Waldorf's best Clovis point--D.C. says "this is probably the best Clovis point I ever made"!

   DON WILCOX----Examples of Don's animal figure art. In the form of eagles, bears, buffalo, dolphins, turtles, etc., etc.

   FOURTEEN MODERN KNAPPED POINTS MADE FROM ONE HIGH RIDGE CHERT NODULE BY 9 DIFFERENT KNAPPERS. Knappers include Jim Spears, Tim Dillard, Woody Blackwell, Mark Nation, Ted Franks, Jim Redfearn, Glen Leesman, Roy Miller and Brian Wrage.

  *Gary Merlie---Pictures and descriptions of many of his Kaolin Cahokia points and his pipes made of southern Illinois pipestone.

  *GEORGE EKLUND'S NODULAR ART FORMS---Various point types are partially knapped from chert nodules and large flakes.

  *"Gray Ghosts"--A short history of Bryan Reinhardt's modern "flint spear" making trade.

   FLAKED STONE PROJECTILE POINT IMPACT FRACTURES---Experimental archaeology has duplicated and identified several different types of impact fracturing.

   JAMES HOWE'S GLASS POINTS---Several examples of beautiful colored points made of different types of glass.

   *JEFF GOWER----Flintknapping in Iraq.

  *JIM HOPPER-----Several examples of Jim's beautiful flake-over-grinding points and how he learn to flintknap.

*JOHN KIERNAN---Several examples of his "Eccentrics" and points.

   LITHIC ARTISTS GUILD----Pictures of modern lithic art and description of the Guild and journal publication.

   MARVIN McCORMICK----One of the "old time" knappers who make large number of points. Marvin produced more Folsom points than anyone else.

 *Mack Tussinger's wonderful eccentrics---Pictures and history of Mack Tussinger's famous Oklahoma eccentrics, circa 1921.

  MACK TUSSINGER'S MAGNIFICENT ECCENTRICS---Pictures of many more of Mack Tussinger's eccentrics and one that may have been made from a Clovis point.

 *Mike Dothager's rocker-punch flaking technique---Indirect percussion flaking that involves sitting flat on the ground.

  OPAL ARROW POINTS---Several examples of arrow points made from real and synthetic opal. One was made by Don Crabtree & another was made by Jim Hopper. Also three points made of fiber optic are shown.

   POINTS & TOOLS FROM A 14 LB BURLINGTON CHERT NODULE---Larry Kinsella makes as many Late Archaic points & tools he can from a 14 lb Burlington chert nodule for the Missouri Archaeology Month poster.

  *Richard Warren's Flake-Over-Grinding Points---Several examples of Mr. Warren's flake-over-grinding points are shown, some of them from the Charley Shewey collection.

  ROY MILLER & THE FLINT RIDGE QUARRY-----Some of Roy's most colorful points made from Flint Ridge flint. Plus pictures and descriptions of his flint collecting on the ancient Flint Ridge quarry.

 *"SWOOSES" SIMPLE FORKED LIMB FLUTING TECHNIQUE-- John Alexander ("Swoose") illustrates his method of fluting Cumberland points with a forked limb.

  *Tim Dillard an Illinois flintknapper---many pictures of his finely flaked blades and points.

  "TWISTED POINTS BY BLACKWELL & "SWOOSE"----Two points are illustrated. One was made with percussion flaking and the other with pressure flaking.

  TOM ONKEN'S ART & AUTHENTIC REPRODUCTION AXES---Some of his Iowa style slant groove and raised ridged axes are pictured and described.

  WOODY BLACKWELL BIFACE, This is a teaching biface made by Woody Blackwell that is intended to be used with his flintknapping instructional CD.

  Woody Blackwell---Clovis points discussed in the New Yorker story.

   WORLD'S FAIR DALTON POINT SOUVENIR 1904, This Kaolin Dalton point was sold along with and glued to a color print showing native Americans.

2000---Estimates for human population levels by the year 2100 range up to 10 billion.
1991
---About this time the 6th great extinction becomes a public issue. Loss of 50% of world species.
------Over 99% of species that have ever lived have gone extinct. Most as a result of past mass extinctions

1989
---Human population reaches 5 billion & a baby is now born at a rate of one for each heart beat.
1977---Human population reaches 4 billion.
1962---Human population reaches 3 billion.
1947---The Dead Sea Scrolls are discovered & Thor Heyerdahl sails Kon-Tiki expedition.
1925---Human population reaches 2 billion.
1850---Human population reaches 1 billion.

HISTORIC PERIOD 
(A.D. 1500 to A.D. 1911)

   The Historic period began in North America with the discovery of the New World by European explorers. The end of this period is recognized by an event that happened in 1911 when Ishi a man who is known as the "last wild Indian" wandered out of the forests of California into the hands of anthropologists who recorded his language and studied his native crafts.

 A short pictorial history of flintknapping beginning with "Flint Jack" and    including "Ishi".

   ISHI POINT CASTS--Two points casts from original arrow points made by the famous California Indian known as Ishi sometime between 1911 & 1916.

*MARINE SHELL MASK GORGETS---From Montana and South Dakota. Four shell masks that are believed to have been used for spirit offerings and curing ceremonies.

  PLAINS INDIAN WAR CLUBS---Several examples of stone-headed plains Indian war clubs with double pointed club heads.

  SHELL CRUCIFIX--This Spanish Colonial style shell crucifix dates to the California Mission period. It was found in San Pedro, California.

1784---First scientific excavation in North America by Thomas Jefferson at Monticello.
1768---Capt. James Cook, greatest European navigator of 18th century, explores east coast of Australia in Endeavour.
1750
---Human population reaches 800 million.
1650---Human population reaches 500 million.
1524---Pizarro conquers the Inca empire and captures Cajamarca.
1521---Cortes conquers the Mexican empire and captures Tenochtitlan.

MISSISSIPPIAN PERIOD 
(A.D. 800 to A.D. 1499)

   Mississippian period society in the eastern United States centered around some of the most spectacular prehistoric ceremonial centers ever constructed in North America. Large flat top temple mounds are the most impressive structures left behind. The largest of these is 103 feet high and located just east of St. Louis, Missouri on the Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site. The Mississippian people lived within a very well organized culture in cities (Cahokia), villages and farmsteads. They had far ranging trade routes that brought in copper from the Great Lakes, sea shells from the Gulf Coast, and various types of stone such as Mill Creek chert from southern Illinois for making digging implements and other tools. These people were farmers who were largely dependent on agriculture to procure most of their food. They raised large fields of corn, squash, beans, sunflowers and tobacco. They were also hunters who used the bow and arrow to kill animals such as deer and they were fishermen who used various means to catch freshwater fish and clams.

   AGEE POINT CAST---A fine example from the Crenshaw site, Ark.

   BARBED ANTLER ARROW POINT CAST---Excavated from mound C, Etowah Mounds site, Bartow County, Georgia.

   BIRDMAN TABLET & CAHOKIA POINTS---Large picture of the Birdman Tablet from Cahokia with a circle of Cahokia points around it.

   "BIG BOY" SPIRO PIPE---This pipe was discovered during the excavation of the Craig mound in the 1930's on the Spiro Mounds site in Le Flore County, Oklahoma.

   BONE FISHHOOK CAST---CAHOKIA MOUNDS SITE---A small bone fishhook found several years ago in a cache of other fishhooks on the Cahokia Mounds site in southern Illinois.

   BONE FISHHOOK CAST---This bone fishhook was found during the excavation of the stockade wall on the Cahokia Mounds site.

   BONE CAHOKIA POINTS---15 examples of different types of bone arrow points from the Cahokia Mounds site and sites nearby.

   BONE SHORT NOSE GOD MASK CAST---A perforated example used as an ear ornament. Found in St. Clair Co., Illinois.

   CAHOKIA ARTIFACTS POSTER---Shows a beautiful assortment of Mississippian artifacts from the Cahokia Mounds State Historic site.

   CAHOKIA MOUNDS ARTICLE IN AN OLD 1917 NEWSPAPER--
You can enlarge the paper to a readable size.

     CATLINITE PIPES----Several examples of catlinite pipes and the pipestone quarry are illustrated and described.

     MONKS MOUND SLUMP REPAIR----Large area excavation on the eastern slope of Monks Mound to repair a slump.

   CELT CACHE---250 lb of ungroved axes found during excavation by archaeologists in St. Clair County, Illinois.

   CERAMIC FIGURE HUMAN HEAD, This clay head was found in 2002 on a Mississippian site in southern Illinois near the Mississippi River. It has a bird-like "top-not" on the top of the head, teeth, an eye pupil and a hole on the bottom where it was once attached to a stick.

   COLLECTOR'S CABINETS, Several pictures of shelves and cabinets full of many different types of Stone Age artifacts and descriptions of some of the "old time" collectors who collected them.

    DUCK RIVER CACHE, Pictures and description of the Duck River Cache from Humphreys County, Kentucky, discovered in 1894.

  *ENGRAVED CAHOKIA STYLE SANDSTONE TABLETS---TWO BIRDMAN TABLETS.

   ETOWAH MOUNDS SITE PAINTED MARBLE STATUES----The male and female marble statues from mortuary mound C. Two of the largest prehistoric carved stone statues yet discovered in the United States.

   FISHHOOKS---Pictures and descriptions of several different types of fishhooks from Illinois, Kentucky, California and Florida.

     FISHHOOK (Cast)---Cast of a bone fishhook that was found in a cache of fishhooks on the Cahokia Mounds site.

    FLUORITE HUMAN EFFIGY FIGURES---Pictures and descriptions of the Anna, Angel site and the Johnston figures. Also a picture of a purple fluorite owl bead from Cahokia Mounds.

    FLUORITE TOLU STATUE---A finely carved human figure found in 1954 on a farm in western Kentucky.

    FRANKE PIPE---The Franke pipe is a Cahokia style bird effigy pipe that may relate to the falcon warrior or falcon impersonator iconography of the Mississippian culture.

   GAR SCALE ARROW POINT CACHE----A cache of 13 gar scales found in St. Louis Co., Missouri with a burial in 1929 along the Meramec River by Chuck Adams

   GOD MASKS-----Two long-nosed copper god masks from Calhoun County, Illinois and a bone short-nosed bone god mask from St. Clair County, Illinois.

     HAFTED UNGROOVED AXES-------Several examples of hafted axes, one that might be within the Mississippian time frame.

   "HEAD POTS"----Several examples of Late Mississippian human head effigy ceramic vessels are illustrated and described.

  
MITCHELL SITE POSTER---Shows a large number of Mississippian artifacts from South Dakota's Mitchell site.

     MITCHELL PREHISTORIC INDIAN VILLAGE SITE-----Pictures and descriptions of the site and artifacts that have been found there.

  *MICRO DRILLS----Microlithic tools from the Cahokia Mounds State Historic site. The artifacts are from the Gregory Perino collection.

    MICRO-DRILL (Cast)----A cast of a micro-drill from the Cahokia Mounds site.

    NATIVE AMERICAN INDIAN GOLD ARTIFACTS----Several gold artifacts from mounds in Florida, Georgia and Ohio as described in old Smithsonian reports.

    A negative painted ceramic cup---Reported to have been found on or near the Cahokia Mounds site. The edge is 1 mm thick.

  *A large group of Cahokia Notched Hoes, Discoidals and Ritual Axes.

  Many colorful Cahokia points, Discoidals, Birdman Tablet & Antler Harpoon from Mound 72.

   Cahokia points----Mound 72 points and other examples from the Cahokia Mounds State Historic site in Illinois.

  *MOUND 72 EXCAVATIONS AT CAHOKIA---Many artifacts are shown plus excavation profiles and sacrificial burials.

   MOUND 72 POINTS----The excavation of Mound 72 produced more than 1200 arrow points of many different types and fanciful shapes. A large cache of antler points were also found.

  *MOUND 72 POINT CASTS---5 different casts of mound 72 points.

    MOUND 72 POINT (Cast)---A wide corner-notched point with a slight recurved blade edge found in Mound 72 at Cahokia Mounds.

    OWL IMAGERY & MYTH---Pictures and descriptions of several different owl engravings, carvings and sculptures. The oldest owl engraving dates to 35,000 years ago.

   RAMEY KNIVES--Large Cahokia culture knives. Some were apparently used ceremonially. They range in size up to 18 1/2 inches long.

    PAINT PALETTES---Stone disc palettes from the southeastern United States. They have been found in the most elite burials at Etowah and Moundville.

    PIASA "MONSTER"--- Marquette's description of the Alton Piasa and pictures of related Spiro engravings, the modern bluff painted Piasa's and modern art pieces.

   SHARK TEETH RELATED ARTIFACTS FROM THE CAHOKIA MOUNDS SITE----Examples of shark teeth effigy bone and stone arrow points and shark teeth side blades for fighting clubs made from stone and teeth from a great white shark are described.

   SHELL MASK GORGETS---Two examples of marine shell mask gorgets from Arkansas and Illinois.

    SPIRO, CRAIG MOUND & ROBERT BELL---Photographs from Robert Bell's photo album of the Pocola Mining Company and the WPA excavations of Craig Mound in 1935 & 1937.

*SPIRO MOUNDS--CRAIG MOUND AND ITS DESTRUCTION Pictures of many artifacts from Craig Mound and history of the sites destruction.

   SPIRO MOUNDS LARGE BIFACES FROM CRAIG MOUND, Several bifaces of different types were excavated from Craig Mound at Spiro measuring up to 22 inches long.

   SPADES & A 30 LONG OBSIDIAN BIFACE--Five spades from Illinois and Missouri are pictured plus a very large obsidian biface from California is pictured and described.

   SPUDS--Several examples of flared bit spuds are described. Most are polished chert spuds that were made by Cahokia craftsmen. A Late Woodland Jersey Bluff spud is also illustrated and described.

   ST. CLAIR SIDE-NOTCHED HOES---Mississippian side-notched hoes from Illinois and Missouri. These are related to the Cahokia sphere of influence.

    STONE CLUBS---Northwest coast clubs from Oregon, Washington and British Columbia.

  *SWEETWATER BIFACE---One of the most skillfully percussion flaked bifaces ever discovered in the United States.

  
SWEETWATER BIFACE CAST---One of the most skillfully percussion flaked bifaces----Nolan Co., Texas.

    TRIANGULAR ARROW POINTS-----Several examples of triangular arrow points from six different countries.

   TRIBUTE POINT CAST---One of the artistically shaped and skillfully crafted arrow points. Found in Craig Mound on the Spiro Site, Oklahoma.

  *THE RATTLER FROG PIPE----A unique Late Mississippian frog effigy pipe from southern Illinois. It seems to be holding a rattle in its front foot.

   WILSON TABLET---An engraved sandstone tablet---Madison Co., Illinois.

A.D. 50-----Rome is the largest city in the world with a population of one million.

ANASAZI
(A.D. 1 to A.D. 1300)

     On the Colorado Plateau of northeastern Arizona, south- western New Mexico, southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado the Archaic was followed by a culture termed the Anasazi. This was a generalized village dwelling group which relied primarily on the cultivation of corn, beans and squash. Hunting did remain as part of the food gathering process throughout the Anasazi era. There is growing evidence that warfare may also have played a small role in Anasazi society. The Anasazi era has been separated into two major divisions: (1) the Basketmaker, and (2) the Pueblo. Each of these is further subdivided into social organizations. The Anasazi era is usually considered to fall between A.D. 1 and A.D. 1300. This time was followed by further development of a pueblo dwelling culture which is still existing today in New Mexico and Arizona.

   PUEBLO KNIFE (cast)---This knife was expertly crafted by its maker who used superb percussion thinning. This blade is a Pueblo II-III knife that dates approximately A.D. 900 - 1300.

  SIDE-NOTCHED POINT (cast)---This Anasazi point dates to the Pueblo III Period between A.D. 1100 and A.D. 1300.

   TANGED ARROW POINT (cast)---This point represents the beginning of the Pueblo I Period during the Anasazi era. It was made from a beautiful piece of green Morrison Siltstone and it measures 1 11/16 inches (4.3 cm) long.

HOHOKAM
(A.D. 200 to A.D. 1450)

    The Hohokam people were prehistoric farmers who lived on approximately 45,000 square miles of land in the Sonoran Desert of south central Arizona. The name Hohokam is usually reserved for the pottery-making people who lived between A.D. 200 and 1450. Many of their houses were built together in small clusters or on isolated locations. They also built large settlements that were well organized around plazas, ball courts and platform mounds. The Hohokam people also built the largest prehistoric canal system in North America. Mexico had a strong influence among the Hohokam in both trade and culture. Rubber from the Mexican lowlands was used to make balls that were used on their elaborate ball courts. The game may have been similar to the one played in 14th century Mexico. It was similar, in some ways, to soccer and basketball but with no hands allowed.

    HOHOKAM POINT (Cast)----A "classic" example of a Hohokam arrow point from south central Arizona.

       HOHOKAM POINT (Cast)----A serrated Hohokam point made of Obsidian from south central Arizona.

WOODLAND PERIOD 
(500 B.C. to A.D. 799)

   As the population began to increase in the eastern United States during the Woodland period lifestyles began to change and became different in many ways from the previous Archaic period. These people began to experiment with the cultivation of plants and by the end of the period were growing corn. They also developed extensive trade routes. The farthest traveled material was Obsidian from the Yellow Stone park area that was traded as far east as eastern Ohio. During the Hopewell tradition which occurred half way through this period and was their "golden age" they made elaborate and very large burial mounds. In these mounds they sometimes placed finely crafted tobacco pipes, large Ross blades, ear spools, and numerous other burial objects that can only be described as art. Nothing so well made had appeared in North America up to this time. These people still hunted with spears thrown with throwing sticks but are credited with the invention of the bow and arrow just before the end of this period.

   *DICKSON POINTS---Some of the most colorful & skillfully made examples ever found in Missouri, Illinois, Wisconsin and Oklahoma.

  *EFFIGY HOPEWELL PIPES--Fine examples of Hopewell platform animal effigy pipes.

   ENGRAVED HUMAN BONE RATTLES & GORGET---Two Hopewell culture bone rattles from Pinson Mounds in Madison County, Tennessee & one bone gorget from the Florence Mound in Ohio.

  HEMISPHERES & LOAFSTONES---Pictures and descriptions of 20 examples. Eighteen are from Illinois and two are from Kentucky. They are often referred to as "problematical objects."

  Hopewell Ross point 8 1/2 inches long and made of translucent orange Kaolin chert----Illinois.

   MOUND CITY AND TREMPER MOUND CACHES OF HOPEWELL PLATFORM PIPES----Approximately 336 platform pipes were discovered in two caches in Ross & Scioto, Counties, Ohio.

   PLUMMET AND RED OCHRE GRINDING STONE---A large sandstone grinding stone is described. It was found on a site in St. Charles Missouri.

   ROSS POINT---Large picture of the translucent orange Kaolin Ross point from Illinois.

    SNYDERS SITE---Pictures and descriptions of the Snyders site and Hopewell artifacts that were found there in Calhoun County, illinois.

   TUBE PIPES---One Glacial Kame from Indiana and three Late Stone Age pipes from Wyoming are described. Some have been described as possible shamans sucking tubes.

   *Mackinaw-Aldrich Cache---Hopewell cache----five examples Dr. Holmes from the Smithsonian once called "the best examples of chipped flint work ever found in America."

1850 B.C.---Stonehenge is constructed around this time, estimated 30 million man-hours to complete.
2,000 B.C.
---
Domestication of horses, camels and donkeys has occurred by this time in the Old World.
3,000 B.C.
---Human population reaches
100 million.
3,500 B.C.---Earliest known writing appears on clay tablets from Uruk in Mesopotamia in Middle East.

ARCHAIC PERIOD 
(8500 B.C. to 500 B.C.)

   The Archaic period was the longest lasting cultural tradition in the eastern United States. The name Archaic was first used in the 1930's to define pre-ceramic groups in the Midwest. Sometime during this period, as the population began to increase, people who had been living in less complicated band societies began to change over into more complex sociopolitical tribal societies. Different types of stone artifacts are seen for the first time such as vegetable-grinding stones and true wood working adzes. The first organized cemeteries, such as the Sloan site, first appear in the early part of the Archaic period. These people hunted with spears thrown with a spear thrower or atlatl. They lived by seasonal movement hunting animals, fishing and gathering various plant foods. The earliest evidence of land management for agriculture occurs with the cultivation of squash. They made vessels and containers out of Steatite, gourds, wood and basketry plus toward the end of the Archaic period fiber tempered ceramic vessels appear. Food was cooked in fired clay lined pits using heated stones or fired clay balls (called Poverty Point objects).

  *ANDICE POINTS REPLICATED BY CAREY WEBER---Several of Carey Weber's best points are shown plus his tool kit and two complete examples of ancient Andice points, one from the Gault site.

   ANDICE POINT (cast)---A complete example from the Gault site in Williamson County, Texas measuring 2 3/4 inches long.

   ANGOSTURA POINT (cast)---"The Anderson Yuma"---has very fine oblique parallel flaking.  

   ATLATL FROM INDIANA---This is a complete atlatl less the wooden shaft that held the antler handle, green slate banner-stone and the antler hook together.

    AXES & CELTS, STYLE VARIATION---Examples of grooved and ungrooved axes from different areas of the world that illustrate a wide range of shapes, sizes and design.

   BANNER-STONE IN MINIATURE FORM---This article illustrates several artifacts in miniature form. Some of them were possibly used as toys.

     BIRDSTONES----Fantail, popeye, short body and bust type birdstones. Birdstones date from the Late Archaic to the Early Woodland periods.

    BUCK CREEK POINT (cast)--This point was found in Hardin County, Kentucky. It's a fine example and appears to be the quality-of-manufacture that is usually found in caches.

    CASCADE POINT (cast)--Found on the Demoss burial site in west central Idaho in 1985. Dates to 6,000 years ago.

    COGGED STONES--Pictures and descriptions of cogged stones from Southern California. Cogged stones might be effigies of cactus slices.

    COOKING STONES---Cooking stones were used in North America 8,000 to 9,000 years ago. The term "carbohydrate revolution" refers to a diet change to insulin-rich root food.

   DALTON CACHE---A cache of 10 Dalton points from Jackson County, Missouri. The longest example is 6 inches (15.2cm) long.

   DALTON CACHE---A cache of 13 Dalton points that were reported to have been found in Scott County, Missouri.

   DALTON POINT (cast)---One of the best examples from the Olive Branch site in southern Illinois.

   DALTON POINT----Large picture of one of the best Dalton points found in a cache on the Olive Branch site.

   DALTON POINT (cast)---One of a cache of eleven points from the Olive Branch site in southern Illinois. Made of black Pitkin chert.

   DALTON FLUTED PREFORMS----Early and late stage Dalton preforms that were broken by reverse hinge fractures during fluting.

   DALTON TOOL----Many different examples of tools from the Olive Branch site in southern Illinois.

   DOVETAIL (HOOKS DOVE) ST. CHARLES POINT--The famous "Hooks Dove" that was found several years ago in Madison Co., Ohio. It's made of a rare variety of red Flintridge chalcedony.

   DOVETAIL POINT (Cast)---This point is made of Hixton silicifed sandstone and was found in Jo Daviess County, Illinois.

   EILERS CACHE OF UNNOTCHED GODAR POINTS--Four early stage preforms and 10 unnotched Godar points from St. Charles County, Missouri.

    END-SCRAPERS MADE FROM BROKEN PROJECTILE POINTS----Several example of end-scrapers made from broken projectile point bases.

   ETLEY POINTS--Several examples from Illinois and Missouri. Also One Wadlow point is illustrated.

   GORGETS--Seven examples of two hole slate and cannel coal gorgets from Kentucky, Missouri and Ohio.

  *HIXTON SILICIFIED SANDSTONE----Pictures of some of the best stone artifacts ever found made of Wisconsin "Sugar Quartz."

   HOLLAND POINT (cast)---This Holland point was found in Barry County, Missouri. It was made by random percussion and fine edge pressure flaking.

   HOLLAND POINT (cast)---This highly developed Holland point was found in St. Louis County, Missouri. It's made of white Burlington chert and measures 4 3/4 inches long.

    KERRVILLE KNIVES---A unique artifact form, that has an outer cortex grip handle. They are found in central Texas.

  Large group of Archaic artifacts with 10 1/4 inch Dalton with hollow ground flaking.

   LABRETS----Examples from Alaska, Mexico and Peru. Labrets may date as early as 10700 years ago in Siberia and 8400 years ago in Iran.

   NERALICH CACHE----Cache of two very large corner notched points found on the Olive Branch site. They may be the largest ever found in an excavation. They measure 11 inches long.

   PLUMMETS---Pictures and descriptions of several different examples of plummets. Also the stages-of-manufacture.

   Several good examples of Dalton points-----a cache from the Olive Branch site in southern Illinois.

  
ETLEY POINT (cast)---Airport site--One of the best examples ever found. It measures 9 1/4 inches long.

   HARDIN BARBED POINT (cast)---Good example from Peoria County, Illinois---measures 5 5/8 inches long.

   PERFORATED PEBBLE PENDANTS---Several examples of pebble pendants from Illinois.

  *POVERTY POINT SITE STONE BEADS---Many examples of some of the best examples of colorful animal and tubular stone beads.

    SIDE-NOTCHED POINT (Cast)---Archaic point found on the Wallace Ruin site in Colorado and dates to 2000 to 1 B.C.

   ST. CHARLES "DOVETAIL" (CAST)---Very good example from Monroe Co., Missouri. It measures 6 1/2 inches long.

   THE GORSUCH SQUARE KNIFE---This very large square knife was found in 1951 on a creek bank. It measures 15 3/4 inches (40 cm) long.

   TABLE ROCK POINT (CAST)---A very large and skillfully made example from Pike County, Illinois. It measures 4 1/4 inches (10.8cm) long.

   THEBES POINTS----Five large examples of Cache variety Thebes points from Illinois and Iowa.

   THE "Z" FLAKED DALTON---This large 8 inch long Dalton point from Missouri has very unique pressure flaking.

   THE "Z" FLAKED DALTON (CAST)---Pettis County, Missouri, One of the most skillfully flaked Dalton points ever found.

  *THE "RED BUD" DALTON---This is one of the best examples of a large Sloan Dalton point ever found. It measures 10 1/4 inches long.

   FULTON TURKEY TAIL POINT (CAST)----This point was found in a cultivated field in Clinton County, Illinois. It's a very fine example of a Late Archaic to Early Woodland period Fulton Turkey Tail point.

    FULTON TURKEY TAIL POINT (CAST)----Exceptionally well made. Published in six different publications where its been described as being quintessential (most perfect). Found by Dean Burke in 1964 in St. Clair Co., Illinois.

7,000 B.C.--Earliest domestication of sheep and goats was in the Near East.
8,000 B.C.
---Human population reaches 5 million, people are living an average 20 or 30 years old.

MIDDLE TO LATE PALEO-INDIAN PERIOD
(10899 B.C. to 8499 B.C.)

   The first scientifically accepted evidence of a very early culture living in the New World was discovered by a black cowboy named George McJunkin in 1926. He discovered the Folsom extinct bison kill site located near Folsom, New Mexico which was excavated by the Denver Museum. Since 1950 C-14 dates for Folsom points have indicated an estimated age at somewhere between 9000 to 8000 B.C. Although this was not the oldest culture in North America this site produced the first evidence of fluted spear points directly associated with extinct bison and was cause for considerable excitement. It opened up a new way of thinking about a much greater time depth to study than was previously believed possible. Some of the extinct animals Paleo-Indians were hunting were bison, mammoths, mastodons and peccaries. These people lived within simple band societies following a nomadic lifestyle. They used spears to hunt with and probably used spear throwers or atlatls to propel them to the target. The peak population estimates for North and South America during the Paleo-Indian period range anywhere from 1 million to 10 million people. The Paleo life style lasted much longer in the western United States and the use of unfluted spear points are seen in the Cody complex with the use of Scottsbluff and Eden points. Some of the different types of Paleo-Indian spear points that have been recorded are Midland, Crowfield, Cumberland, Barnes, Debert, Goshen, Plainview and Bone & Ivory spear points.

   AGATE BASIN POINT (cast)----Jersey Co., Illinois---One of the best examples ever found in Illinois---6 3/8 inches long.

   AGATE BASIN POINT (cast)----Stephenson Co., Illinois---Made from Hixton Silcified Sandstone.

   AGATE BASIN POINT (cast)---A heavily resharpened Agate Basin point from St. Clair County, Illinois.

   Agate Basin Site Bone Flesher Tool--10-A.

   ALLEN POINT (cast)-----Very fine example from a bison kill site in western Kansas.

   BARNES POINT (cast)----From the Thedford II site in Lambton County, Ontario.

   CHINDADN POINT (cast)----Moose Creek site, central Alaska. This projectile point is dated at approx. 11,000 years ago.

   CROWFIELD POINT (cast)-----This Crowfield point was found sometime before 1956 by Waldo Stanford near the town of Busti in Chautauqua County, New York.

  CUMBERLAND CACHE---TRINITY SITE---Eleven Cumberland points were found over a period of several years in a small area of a farm field in northern Kentucky. Most were reassembled from broken fragments.

   CUMBERLAND---THE PHIL STRATTON SITE---This site is located in southwestern Kentucky. The Cumberland component is buried under 30-40 cm of loess.

   CUMBERLAND POINTS----Pictures and descriptions of Cumberland points from Alabama, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee and New York.

   CUMBERLAND GRAVER SIDE-SCRAPER (cast)---This combination graver side-scraper was found on the Phil Stratton Cumberland site in Logan County, Kentucky.

    CUMBERLAND POINT (cast)-----Found near Glasgow, Kentucky.

     CUMBERLAND POINT PREFORM (Cast)-----This late stage Cumberland point preform was found in Dickson County, Kentucky.

     CUMBERLAND POINT (Cast)----Found during the excavation of Dutchess Quarry Cave #1 in Orange Co., New York.

   DILTS BISON KILL SITE----A Paleo-Indian bison kill site in northeastern Wyoming.

  
EARLY PALEO-INDIAN POSTER---Color picture of approximately 240 artifacts---33 different states.

   EASTERN STYLE "LONG FLUTED" FLUTED POINT (cast)----This multi-fluted point from Tennessee measures 4 7/8 inches long and is double fluted on both sides with very long flutes.

   EDEN POINT (cast)---This Eden point was found in Sweetwater Co., Wyoming. Was considered the second best example in Virgil Russell coll.

   EDEN POINT (cast)---This Eden point was found of the Eden type site on the Finley site, near Eden Wyoming.

   EDEN POINT (cast)---This Eden point was found on the Eden type site on the Finley site, near Eden, Wyoming.

     EDEN POINT (Cast)---This is the only Horner site type II point that was found during the excavation.

   DEBERT-CLOVIS POINT (cast)---Vail site, Oxford County, Maine. The best example found during excavation of this site.

    EDEN POINT (Cast)---Found on the Eden type site on the Finley site near Eden, Wyoming.

   FLUTED STEMMED FISHTAIL POINT (cast)--This point was found on the surface in the country of Belize. A very good example.

    FLUTED POINT (cast)---This fluted point was found in Franklin Co., Vermont and it is made of Ramah chert from Labrador.

    FLUTED POINT (cast)---This fluted point was found during the excavation of the Sugarloaf site in 2013.

    FLUTED POINT LATE STAGE PREFORM (cast)---An unfinished fluted point with a prepared basal sticking platform, Sugarloaf site, Massachusetts.

    FLUTED POINT BASE WITH REFIT CHANNEL FLAKE (Cast)---Broken fluted point base and a cast of a channel flake that fits back onto one of the flute flake scars. Excavated from the Sugarloaf site in South Deerfield, MA.

   FOLSOM POINT PREFORM (UNFLUTED)--This Folsom preform was broken during manufacture but it still retains its striking platform.

   FOLSOM POINT PREFORM (FLUTED)---A large base of a Folsom point that was broken by an overshot during fluting. From Lake Ilo.

   FOLSOM POINT LATE STAGE PREFORM (Cast)---This late stage Folsom point preform was found in two pieces on a lake shore in North Dakota.

    FOLSOM POINT (Cast)---This Folsom point was found in southwestern Missouri in Barry County.

    FOLSOM POINT (Cast)---This Folsom point was found on the Read-Lincoln Hills site in Jersey County, Illinois.

  
GOSHEN POINT (cast)---This is the best example from the Mill Iron site in Carter County, Montana.

   GOSHEN POINT (Cast)---This point was found in the bone bed on the Mill Iron site in Carter County, Montana.

   GOSHEN POINT (Cast)---This point was discovered during the excavation of the Mill Iron site in Carter Co., MT.

    GOSHEN POINT (Cast)---This triangular shaped point may have been broken and re-based.

     GOSHEN POINT (Cast)---This point was found during the excavation of the Mill Iron site in Carter Co., Montana.

      GOSHEN POINT (Cast)---This Goshen point is one of the more skillfully made points from the mill Iron site.

       GOSHEN POINT (Cast)---A Goshen point from the Mill Iron site made of Hartville chert.

     HASKETT POINT (Cast)---The largest Haskett point ever found archaeologically, western Utah.

      HASKETT POINT (cast)---This Haskett point was found in western Utah. It tested positive for elephant antisera, presumably mammoth or mastodon.

      HASKETT POINT (cast)---This is the best example found on the type site in Power County, Idaho.

    MILL IRON SITE---Pictures and descriptions of Goshen points and unifacial tools found on the Mill Iron site in Carter County, Montana.

  *MOOSE CREEK SITE---Early Nenana complex site located in the Nenana Valley in central Alaska. This site dates to 11,190 years before present. A Chindadn and Subtriangular projectile point was found in the Nenana occupation level.

   MICROBLADE (cast)---This small blade was found during the 1996 re-excavation of the Moose Creek in the Nenana Valley in central Alaska.

  
SCOTTSBLUFF TYPE II POINT (cast)---Found in 1895 in Montana by a gold miner.

  
CUMBERLAND POINT (cast)---One of the best examples from Alabama.

  "EARED EDEN POINT (Cast)----This is one of the best examples of type point ever found.

   FIRSTVIEW POINT (Cast)----This is one of the best examples ever found in Texas.

   FLUTED KNIFE (Cast)----This is one of the best examples out of the several that were found on the Vail site in Oxford County, Maine.

   FLUTED POINT (Cast)----This "thin" long fluted point was found in Otsego County, New York by Howard Arndt.

  *Folsom Bead #72---Picture of the tiny Folsom Bead that was found on the Shifting Sand site.

  *Folsom Bone Needle---Picture of a small bone needle that was found on a Midland site in Texas.

   FOLSOM POINT (cast)---Found in the 1930's on the Blackwater Draw mammoth & bison kill site in Curry County, New Mexico.

  
FOLSOM POINT (cast)---Found in Custer Co., Oklahoma in 1945 and is a very good example.

   FOLSOM POINT (cast)----Made of translucent orange Hixton Silicified Sandstone, from Wisconsin.

   Folsom & Glass Bead---Tiny Folsom bead next to a tiny glass sand trade bead.

    LINDENMEIER SITE----The Lindenmeier site is located in northern Colorado and dates to sometime between 12,900 and 11,700 years ago.

   *Mesa Site Artifacts and Views of the Site---Paleo-Indian lookout site in northern Alaska above the Arctic Circle.

   MESA SITE POINT (cast)---Heavily resharpened spear point #KIR-102-85-1 from northern Alaska above the Arctic Circle.

   MESA SITE POINT (cast)---Spear point #KIR-102-92-01 from northern Alaska above the Arctic circle.

   PLAINVIEW POINT (cast)---Found on the San Augustine Plains of New Mexico---a very good "classic" example.

  *Sheriden Cave Site--Deep cave Late Paleo-Indian camp and food processing site.

SCOTTSBLUFF POINT (Cast)---Cast of a Scottsbluff point that was found on the Finley bison kill site in Sweetwater County, Wyoming.

   SHERIDEN CAVE FLUTED POINT (cast)--Only complete example found in the cave.

   SHERIDEN CAVE BONE POINT (cast)---This is the engraved one & is believed to have penetrated a peccary scapula fragment found there.

   SIMPSON POINT (cast)----This Simpson point was found in the Suwannee River in either Hamilton or Suwannee Counties in Florida.

   SIMPSON POINT (Cast)---Found during the excavation of the Harney Flats site in Hillsborough County, Florida.

   SUBTRIANGULAR POINT (Cast)--A 11,190 year old Nenana complex projectile point from the Moose Creek site located in the Nenana Valley in central Alaska.

    STRIKING PLATFORM FRAGMENT (Cast)---This striking platform fragment was found during the excavation of the Sugarloaf site in 2013.

   WINDUST POINT (Cast)--This Windust point was found on the Buhl burial site in Twin Falls County, Idaho. It was made of opaque black Obsidian and has a "chisel tip."

10,000 B.C.-----Earliest domesticated animal was the dog in Iraqi Kurdistan.
12,000 B.C.
-----First grindstones used in Upper Egypt & Nubia, for making flour from wild grass seeds

CLOVIS CULTURE 
(12000 B.C. to 10900 B.C.)
NORTH AMERICAS OLDEST CULTURAL TRADITION

   The Clovis culture is the oldest recognized cultural tradition in North America. Sometime before 14,000 years ago these people entered the New World by crossing the Bering Strait on a newly formed land mass. When Early Paleo-Indians entered North America they were entering a new land that had not seen humans up to that time. These nomadic people hunted the largest animals that ever lived in North America, the mammoths and mastodons. Their Clovis spear points have been found in all the states in the United States except Hawaii. Clovis sites are typically camp sites they occupied for short periods of time as they followed a seasonal food supply. Stone tool manufacturing sites have also been discovered where they were collecting a variety of good quality stone and replenishing their tool kit with drills, scrapers, gravers, projectile points, etc.  The rarest sites and most spectacular are the kill sites and cache sites. Most of these sites have been found in the western United States. Cache sites are suspected burials where several Clovis artifacts have been found in a group. The Anzick cache discovered several years ago in Montana was found with a child burial.

   Anzick Biface and Rutz Clovis point #106---Largest Clovis Biface with largest Clovis point.

   Bostrom Clovis Camp Site----A Clovis camp site in southern Illinois.

   BI-BEVELED BONE ROD (cast)--A cast is available of this engraved Clovis bone artifact from the East Wenatchee site in Washington.

    BLACKWATER DRAW CLOVIS TYPE SITE--Pictures of site excavations and artifacts, such as Clovis, Folsom and Agate Basin points The Blackwater Draw site was discovered in 1929.

   CACTUS HILL SITE---A Clovis and pre-Clovis site located in Sussex County in eastern Virginia. Cores, blades and two "early triangular" points were reported from the pre-Clovis level.

   CLOVIS IN THE NORTHEASTERN NORTH AMERICA, BY MICHAEL GRAMLY---Discusses and illustrates artifacts from the Windy City site in northern Maine.

   CLOVIS POINT (cast)--A small Clovis point from the Lange Ferguson mammoth kill site in Pine Ridge, South Dakota.

   CLOVIS POINT (cast)--This is the largest Clovis point from the Fenn cache. It is described as a late stage preform Clovis point.

   CLOVIS POINT (cast)--This Obsidian Clovis point was found by Dewey Dietz near the Dietz Clovis site in Oregon. There is hafting abrasions on the base.

   CLOVIS POINT (Cast)---This is the largest complete Clovis point found on the Colby Mammoth kill site.

    CLOVIS POINT (Cast)---Found on the East Wenatchee Clovis site in 1988, number 325.

    CLOVIS POINT (cast)----This is the first Clovis artifact identified to have ancient adhesive preserved within the hafting area.

   CLOVIS ARTIFACTS----Very large picture of several Clovis artifacts from kill and cache sites, west of the Mississippi River.

   CLOVIS POSTER---This poster shows many important Clovis artifacts from the western United States.

  
CLOVIS SLIDE SET---This set has 140 sides and shows some of the best examples of Clovis artifacts ever discovered.

   CLOVIS POINTS---Six Clovis points from four different states east of the Mississippi River. These are all fairly large Clovis points and are pictured in the Early Paleo poster.

   CLOVIS POINT (cast)---This is a cast of the largest Clovis point that was found during the excavation of the East Wenatchee Clovis site in Douglas County, Washington.

  
CLOVIS POINT (cast)--- Fulton Co., Illinois, Made from semi-translucent orange Hixton Silcified Sandstone.

   CLOVIS POINT (cast)---A Quartz crystal Clovis point from the Fenn cache. One of three examples found in this Clovis cache.

  
CLOVIS POINT (cast)---The most skillfully made point in the Fenn cache.

   CLOVIS POINT (cast)---This is the best of the two Obsidian Clovis points from the Fenn cache. This one is unique for its hafting abrasions.

   CLOVIS POINT (Cast)---This Clovis point was found in Woodbury Co., Iowa and is made of Knife River flint. It is sometimes referred to as the "Woodbury Clovis point."

   CLOVIS POINT (Cast)---A heavily resharpened Clovis point that was found on the Hoyt site in the Great Basin region of central Oregon.

   CLOVIS POINT (Cast)---Found in 1975 near Fairfax Circle, Virginia. Made of green Normanskill chert.

     CLOVIS POINT (Cast)---This sugar Quartz Clovis point was found in 1868 in Union County, Illinois.

     CLOVIS POINT (Cast)--One of two Clovis points found on the Shawnee-Minisink site in northeastern Pennsylvania.

   *COLBY SITE CLOVIS POINTS----Pictures of the mammoth bone bed excavations and three of the four Clovis points found there.

   COLBY CLOVIS POINT (Cast)---A Colby style Clovis point found during excavation of mammoth bone pile number 2---made or red Phosphoria Formation chert.

   COLBY CLOVIS POINT (Cast)---This Clovis point was found during the 1975 excavation of the Colby mammoth kill site in north central Wyoming.

  
Crescent---Two from Wyoming--12-B.

  *CRESCENTS---The earliest crescents are found along with Clovis points in the far western U.S. They date from 9,000 to 5,500 B.C.

    CRESCENT (Cast)---This is the only crescent that was found in the Fenn Clovis cache. Traces of red ochre was found on its surface.

  BUTTERFLY CRESCENT (Cast)---Found during an archaeological survey on the US Army Dugway Proving Ground in Tooele Co., Utah.

  *DRAKE CACHE CLOVIS POINTS----6 examples shown in large images. These six point are in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution.

   Drake Cache Clovis Points #117---Six examples from the Smithsonian Institution collections.

  Drake Cache Clovis Point #121---Double exposure of colorful example from the Smithsonian's Collection.

   East Wenatchee Site Bone Rod--7-A.

   East Wenatchee Site Bone Rod--7-B.

   END SIDE-SCRAPER (Cast)------The larges uniface tool found on the East Wenatchee Clovis site.

    END SCRAPERS-----Examples of Clovis, Cody Complex, Neolithic and Mississippian end scrapers.

    ENGRAVED STONES FROM THE GAULT SITE-----Four engraved stones found on the Gault site in Williamson County, Texas.

    ENGRAVED "WHEATSTONE (Cast)----Engraved stone from the Gault sit in Texas. Engraved on both sides.

   THE FENN CACHE----All 56 artifacts can be seen. The cache includes 23 finished and unfinished Clovis point and many early stage bifaces.

  *Fenn Cache Clovis Point #91---Triple exposure of the best example from the Fenn cache.

  
Fenn Cache Clovis Point #125---Hand held picture of clear Quartz Crystal Clovis picture.

   Fenn Cache Clovis Point Base #98---Close-up picture of scratches on the hafting area.

   Fenn Cache Core Blade #85---Triple exposure of the only Core Blade in the Fenn Cache.

   Fenn Cache Quartz Crystal Clovis points.

   Fenn Cache Biface Core--4-A.

   Fenn Cache Large Biface Core--4-B.

  *Fenn Cache 13 Late Stage Preforms--5-A.

  *Fenn Cache Clovis Point--6-A.

  *Fenn Cache Clovis Point--6-B.

   Fenn Cache Clovis Point--6-C.

   Fenn Cache Clovis Point--6-D.

   Fenn Cache Crystal Clovis Points--6-E.

  *Fenn Cache Clovis Point--6-F.

  *Fenn Cache Clovis Point--6-G.

  *Fenn Cache Clovis Point--6-H.

   Fenn Cache Clovis Point--6-I.

   Fenn Cache Clovis Point--6-J.

   Fenn Cache Clovis Point--6-K.

   Fenn Cache Clovis Point--6-L.

   Fenn Cache Clovis Point--6-M.

   Fenn Cache Clovis Point--6-N.

   Fenn Cache Clovis Point--6-O.

  *Fenn Cache Crescent--12-A.

  *Fenn Cache Core Blade--13-A.

   Gault Site Core and Bostrom site Blade #135.

    CLOVIS POINT (cast)---This Clovis point was found on the Gault site by David Olmstead.

   GRAVER, BOSTROM SITE (cast)---A typical example of a Clovis graver, made on a simple percussion flake. This graver has one point.

    GRAVERS---Gravers from five different Clovis and one Early Archaic site illustrated and described.

   Hafted Eskimo Scraper #53---Illustrated to show Clovis technology with similar tool type.

   *Ivory Spear Point from Florida River--14-A, 14-B, 14-C & 14-D.

   IVORY BILLET/BURNISHER----This mammoth ivory tool was discovered on the Clovis type site at Blackwater Draw.

   KIMMSWICK SITE CLOVIS POINT (cast)---This is the best example found during excavation of the Kimmswick Mastodon Kill site.

   KIMMSWICK SITE CLOVIS POINT (cast)---This is a small heavily resharpened Clovis point that was found during the excavation of the Kimmswick Mastodon Kill Site near Kimmswick, Missouri.

   LAMB SITE-----Pictures and descriptions of the cache of 10 fluted points and 11 bifaces that were found on this site.

   LAMB SITE FLUTED POINT (cast)---This is one of the best examples found on this site. It is made of Flint Ridge chert.

   LAMB SITE FLUTED POINT (cast)----A large fluted point found during the excavation of the Lamb site in New York.

    LANGE FERGUSON SITE BONE TOOLS---Chopper / cleavers and flake mammoth bone tools.

  *Lange Ferguson Site artifacts & excavation pictures---mammoth kill site.

   Lange Ferguson Site #10---Picture of excavations on the Lange Ferguson mammoth kill site.

  **Lange Ferguson and Fenn Cache Artifacts---Large group of Clovis Culture artifacts.

  *Lange Ferguson Chopper Cleaver--1-A.

   Lange Ferguson Chopper Cleaver--1-B.

   Lange Ferguson Notched Bone--2-A.

   Lange Ferguson Pointed Bone--2-B.

  *Lange Ferguson Discoidal Bone Flake--2-C----Best example of a human fractured bone from site.

  
Lange Ferguson Refit Bone Flake--2-D.

   Lange Ferguson Bone Core--2-E.

   Lange Ferguson Broken Scapula--2-G.

   Lange Ferguson Small Fractured Bone--2-H.

   Lange Ferguson Clovis Point--3-A.

   Lange Ferguson Clovis Point--3-B.

   Lange Ferguson Flake--3-C.

   LATE STAGE CLOVIS PREFORM----Found in two pieces, this preform was broken during fluting. It was discovered during the excavation of the Thunderbird site in Virginia.

   McKINNIS CLOVIS CACHE----23 artifacts, including 12 core blades and 11 bifaces. Also includes one late stage Clovis preform. Discovered in 1996 in St. Louis County, Missouri.

   McKINNIS CACHE EARLY STAGE CLOVIS PREFORM (cast)---This Clovis preform is an excellent example showing edge-to-edge Clovis style of flaking.

   McKINNIS CACHE LATE STAGE CLOVIS PREFORM (cast)---A late stage Clovis preform. The longest of 11 preforms in the McKinnis Clovis cache.

     McKINNIS CACHE EARLY STAGE CLOVIS PREFORM (cast)----This Clovis preform has one very good example of an edge removal by "outre passe" flaking.

   Murray Springs Bone Wrench Cast--11-A.

   MURRAY SPRINGS BONE WRENCH---Plus several other examples of pierced staffs from Upper Paleolithic sites in Europe and Eskimo sites in Alaska.

   ORGANIC PROJECTILE POINTS---Pictures and descriptions of Clovis projectile points made of organic materials and other time period projectile points.

   PERFORATOR & SIDE-SCRAPER (cast)----This combination tool was used for both scraping and making holes. It was made from a blade that was struck from a prepared core.

   PREFORM (cast)---Base of a late stage Clovis preform broken during basal fluting. This is a classic Clovis manufacturing break pattern.

   PREFORM (cast)---A late stage Clovis preform that was fluted on one side only. The striking platform remnant remains unaltered.

   Reverse Hinge Fracture #83---Common Clovis point manufacturing break pattern.

   Ready Site Stages-of-Manufacture #37----Picture shows Clovis manufacturing process in stages.

   "RUTZ CLOVIS POINT" (cast)----This is the largest Clovis point found in North America to date. Found near the East Wenatchee Clovis site.

   SANDIA POINTS-----The Sandia Cave site and artifacts found during the excavation.

  *Several Clovis artifacts from the Murray Springs site, Fenn cache, East Wenatchee site, etc. #123.

  *Sheriden Cave Site--Deep cave Late Paleo-Indian camp and food processing site.

   SPURRED END-SCRAPER (cast)---This spurred end-scraper was found on the Bostrom Clovis camp site in St. Clair County, Illinois.

  *St. Louis Fluted point-----known as the "Robinson Clovis"----Hickman Co., Kentucky.

   ST. LOUIS FLUTED POINT (Cast)---Found in Franklin County, Alabama. It's made of translucent Bangor chert and measures 5 3/8 inches long.

  *Wenatchee Clovis Cache-----Several pictures of some of the largest Clovis points ever discovered.

  *Where Did Clovis Come From?----Pictures of Clovis cores & blades and obliquely percussion flaked Clovis points, Siberian excavation and a Solutrean Laurel leaf.

PRE-SPANISH CONTACT
MEXICO, CENTRAL & SOUTH AMERICA
12,000 B.C. TO SPANISH CONTACT

   This segment will include Pre-Spanish contact south of North America, anything from Paleo, Archaic, Preclassic, Classic, etc. periods.

   AXE GOD PENDANTS----Jadeite axe god pendants from Costa Rica.

   AZTEC SERPENT EFFIGY (cast)---8 1/2 inch long effigy of a snake made on a core blade.

  *AZTEC BIFACES---Several examples of large Aztec culture ceremonial knives (bifaces). The longest is 24 1/4 inches long.

    AZTEC RITUAL KNIFE---Buried in ceremonial caches, used in sacrificial blood-letting & sometimes "personified" with decorations.

    BARK BEATERS AND BARK CLOTH---Bark beaters from New Guinea, Guatemala, Mexico and Cahokia Mounds.

    BELIZE, LOWE & SAWMILL POINTS---Date to the Late Archaic period in northern Belize.

    BELIZE, LOWE POINT (cast)----Cast of a Lowe point from the Lowe Ranch in northern Belize.

  CEREMONIAL METATES FROM COSTA RICA---Ceremonial metates were high status ritual objects that are found exclusively in elite burials.

   GRINDING STONES WORLDWIDE---Grinding stones were mainly used to process food. In Guatemala, an average time of 4.8 hours of grinding time per day is estimated for a family of five.

  *LLAMA & ALPACA CONOPAS, INCA CULTURE---Several examples of stone carved alpaca and llama conopas from Peru.

   INCA CULTURE HUMAN FIGURES--Male and female human figures carved out of wood and inlaid on all sides with colorful shells.

  *LARGE AZTEC BIFACE-----This 24 inch long ceremonial Biface was made by a master craftsman.

   LARGE AZTEC BIFACE (cast)----Cast of a 24 inch long ceremonial Biface that was expertly made by a very skilled flintknapper.

    MACES FROM COSTA RICA---Costa Rican maces are known for their finely crafted images of animals, plants, geometric and god forms.

   *MAYAN ECCENTRICS---Eccentrics are non-utilitarian chipped stone objects that are normally found in caches within a ceremonial context associated with the Maya elite. They represent some of the most skillfully flaked stone artifacts so far discovered on Stone Age sites in the world.

  *MAYAN "DEATH HEAD" MARINE SHELL TINKLER BEADS---The "death head" images carved on these four tinklers are strong and very well done. They were probably carved by one of the many skilled craftsmen that were working within the Mayan Classic or Postclassic periods sometime before A.D. 1200.

  *MAYAN STEMMED MACRO BLADE "DAGGERS"---Stemmed macro blades were made in large numbers during the Late Preclassic to the Terminal Classic periods in northern Belize. Maya flintsmiths used core and blade technology to make them.

  *MAYA BIFACE---A very large Maya culture biface made of Colha chert from Belize. This biface measures 32 1/2 inches long.

    COLOSSAL HEADS OF THE OLMEC---Preclassic monuments on the southern Mexican gulf coastal plain on the sites of La Venta and San Lorenzo. Large stone carved portraits of Olmec rulers.

  THREE SIDED POINTS---Eight different examples from Panama are illustrated.

AUSTRALIA
A.D. 1500--

   Artifacts from the continent of Australia.

   KIMBERLEY SPEAR POINTS---Seven good examples of Kimberley spear points. Some still have original hafting resin on their bases. They are made of chalcedony, glass and quartzite.

    KIMBERLY POINT (Cast)----Cast of a Kimberly point from northwestern Australia.

     LEILIRA RESIN HAFTED KNIVES----A type of resin hafted knife form that was manufactured and traded in the central and northern regions of Australia.

14,000 B.C.-----Earliest development of microliths in Europe.

NEOLITHIC PERIOD
(8000 B.C. TO -----

   This period has sometimes been referred to as the "Neolithic Revolution" because so much of human technological development happens at this time. The Neolithic period applies to much of the world but particularly to Europe, the Near East, China and Southeast Asia. During this period humans were taking control of their environment in a way never seen before. Animals were being domesticated and agriculture was taking hold. Stone axes were being used to clear the forests of Europe to plant crops and raise farm animals for food in agricultural villages. Many new stone tool types also appear in abundance such as ground stone tools for cutting wood, grinding stones for processing plant foods, sickle blades to harvest grains and battle axes used in fighting. Other items were also developed like fired clay vessels, baskets and even building materials such as sun dried mud bricks. Finally, the term civilization can be used generally about 5,000 years ago when societies develop complex governmental bureaucracies with taxes, laws and a governing elite class of rulers.

    CANAANEAN SICKLE BLADES----Highest quality type of blade production in the region of the southern Levant in the area of the eastern Mediterranean.

    CANAANEAN SICKLE BLADE SEGMENT (Cast)----Sickle blade with serrated edge and sickle sheen from Tell Halif, Israel.

  *DANISH DAGGERS--Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age daggers from northern Europe. Several different types.

   DANISH DAGGER TYPE IV (Cast)---A fine example of a stitched handle Type IV Dagger from the Dagger Period of Northern Europe.

   DANISH DAGGER TYPE V (Cast)---A good example of a Type V Danish dagger from northern Europe----late Neolithic period.

   FAN-EARED POINTS----Finely made deeply notched arrowheads from the Sub-Saharan region of Africa.

   FAN-EARED POINT (Cast)---Fine example of one of the more elaborate styles of arrow points from the Sub-Sahara region of Africa.

  *FISH TAIL BIFACES---Predynastic Egyptian ritual objects used for a religious rite of symbolically opening the mouth of the dead to feed the soul.

   FISH TAIL BIFACE (cast)----A rare example of a tool used in ritual ceremonies in Predynastic Egypt.

   FISHTAIL BIFACES----Two different types are known. They were used in the "opening of the Mouth" ceremony.

  *GERZEAN KNIVES---Two rare Predynastic Ripple Flaked Gerzean Knives from Egypt.

    GERZEAN "RIPPLE" FLAKED KNIFE (cast)---Predynastic Egypt.

     HAFTED UNGROOVED AXES-----A few examples of flint and polished hard stone axes from northern Europe and France. One example of a Swiss Lake Dweller axe in an antler socket.

   HOLLOW BASE PROJECTILE POINTS---Pictures of nine spear points from Predynastic Egypt.

   HOLLOW BASE PROJECTILE POINT (cast)---A cast is available of this very well made Predynastic spear point.

   PREDYNASTIC FLINT KNIVES---Gerzean ripple flaked knives and percussion flaked knives with and without handles.

   SICKLE BLADE (cast)---Egypt, Gerzean Period.

   STEMMED ARROW POINT (cast)---A very thin stemmed arrow point from east central Saudi Arabia.

    SWISS LAKE DWELLER SITES----These sites are known for their preservation of organic materials. Many of the stone tools still retain their handles and hafting elements.

   THREE SIDED BLADE POINTS---Three examples from northern Europe are described.

24,000 B.C.---Earliest evidence of storage pits on Late Paleolithic sites in eastern European plain.

UPPER PALEOLITHIC 
(40,000 B.C. to 8,000 B.C.)

   The most significant innovations of stone tool development that occur at this time are in Europe, the Near East and northeastern Africa. A more sophisticated stone tool technology is developed round 35,000 years ago which produces large blades struck off prepared cores. This same technique is also being used later in this period in the New World by the Clovis culture. The Neanderthals disappear sometime around 30 to 35 thousand years ago. The first art also appears about this time 35 thousand years ago with engravings and carvings of animals. Towards the middle and end of this period microliths appear which are tiny geometric shaped stone tools that were probably attached as side-blades to wood or reed shafts to make composite arrows. Sometime between 10 and 20 thousand years ago the spear thrower and bow and arrow were developed. In France and Spain the Solutrean complex appears 21,000 years ago and continues to about 17,000 years ago. These people began to use for the first time the edge-to-edge or "outré passé" technique of percussion flaking.  This manufacture process is the same used by the Clovis people in the New World. To this day some of the most skillfully flaked bifaces (large points) ever made were made in the Solutrean complex.

   Ushki I Stemmed Projectile Point (Cast) from the Kamchatka Peninsula in Siberia. Level 7 carbon dates to approximately 14,000 years ago.

  *Aurignacian--The First Modern Humans. Blade tools from 3 different sites in southern France---Abri Blanchard, Solvieux and Tempo-Pialat.

   Aurignacian End Scraper-Burin (Cast) from a site in southern France called Tempo-Pialat.

   Aurignacian Double End Scraper (Cast) from a site in southern France called Tempo-Pialat.

     Aurignacian Dihedral Burin (Cast), from a site in southern France called Tempo-Pialat.

   Perforated Bear Canine Tooth (Cast) from the site of Grubgraben in northern Austria. Dates to the Epigravettian approximately 18,000 years ago.

     PIERCED STAFFS OR BATONS---Several examples from Upper Paleolithic sites in France.

    PROJECTILE POINTS MADE ON BLADES AND FLAKES, Several examples from different countries around the world.

     SOLUTREAN PERIOD---Several examples of stone tools from four different sites in western France including laurel-leaf points.

48,000 B.C.-----Homo sapiens sapiens has populated virtually every part of he world except North & South America.
---------------------Early flake stone tools appear on islands in South-East Asia.
100,000 B.C.---One of earliest intentional burials by Neanderthals at Teshik-Tesh Cave in Uzebkistan in Central Asia.
150,000 B.C.---The controlled use of fire is scientifically accepted at least this far back in history.
300,000 B.C.---Earliest dated spear---site in England. Artifact was a tip of a sharpened yew shaft.
400,000 B.C.---Earliest presence of a vocal tract in archaic Homo sapiens and similar to our own.
600,000 B.C.---Earliest major stone tool manufacturing site by Homo erectus at Isampur Quarry- India.
800,000 B.C.---In Homo erectus the first humanlike grade of primitive hunter-gatherers begin to be established.

MIDDLE PALEOLITHIC 
(1.2 MILLION to 40,001 B.C.)

   During the Middle Paleolithic period stone tools become increasingly more complex. Homo erectus dies out about 300,000 years ago but not before making very fine bifacially flaked hand axes using soft hammers made from antler, ivory or bone. The Neanderthals appear in Europe and the New East about 135,000 years ago and died out about 35,000 years ago. During this time they produce a wide variety of stone tools that were used within an ever increasing intelligent world. Approximately sixty different stone tool types were developed during this period. Homo sapiens sapiens appears probably sometime before 120,000 years ago and like the Neanderthals also make a wide variety of stone tools.

   ACHEULEAN FLAKE TOOL (Cast), This simple flake tool was discovered on the Kalambo Falls site in Zambia, Africa. It dates to at least 200,000 years ago.

  ACHEULEAN HANDAXES, Several examples of Acheulean handaxes from four different countries, Kalambo Falls, Zambia, St. Acheul & Abbeville, France, and Romsey Hants., England.

    ATERIAN POINTS, 40,000 year old tanged Aterian dart points that were propelled through the air with a spear thrower (atlatl). Collected on sites in northwestern Africa.

1.5 million---The controlled use of fire is suspected this far back in time in Africa but not proven.

LOWER PALEOLITHIC
(2.6 MILLION to 1.3 MILLION)

   The Early or Lower Paleolithic period represents a time when the oldest and simplest stone tools were being made. The appearance of the genus Homo coincides roughly with the beginning of the archaeological record approximately 2.5 million years ago. These early artifacts were just simple flakes that were struck off chopper cores. It's believed that Homo habilis was making these flakes for the sharp edge they produced and probably using them to cut open the hides of animals and other cutting purposes. There are three main types of artifacts from this period. They are flakes for cutting, chopper cores from which the flakes were removed and spheroids. Spheroids are round stone objects that were used and shaped this way as a result from hammering to remove flakes. Research studies using a Bonobo chimp named "Kanzi" illustrates very well how these animals are able to make a simple flake using various fracturing techniques then cut the ropes off a food box. Homo erectus appears sometime later in this period about 1.5 million years ago. This early hominid carried on stone tool manufacturing traditions with more complex tools such as hand axes, cleavers and large flakes for cutting or scraping. Homo erectus develops about a dozen different types of stone tools and continues to make them for many hundreds of thousands of years.

  *Kanzi the chimp shown making stone tools and his tool kit. 

  Oldowan Chopper Cores and Flake Tools from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania Africa.

   OLDOWAN FLAKE TOOL (Cast), From Olduvai Gorge and the University of California Berkeley Collection.

   THE TIDE-LOCK CHOPPER CORE, It was discovered in Virginia and identified, with considerable effort, as a Lower Paleolithic tool from Europe. A ship ballast stone.

2.5 to 3 million---Earliest flaked-stone tool technology begins sometime during this period in Africa.
4 to 5 million
----Earliest known bipedal hominids (Australopithecines) in the East African Rift Valley & southern Africa.

REFERENCES

Bahn, Paul G. 1996. "The Cambridge Illustrated History of Archaeology", Cambridge University Press.
Fiedel, Stuart J. 1994 second edition. "Prehistory of the Americas", Cambridge University Press.
Gallant, Roy A. 1990. "The Peopling of the Planet Earth", MacMillan Publishing Company.
Harper-Collins 1997. "Past Worlds Atlas of Archaeology", Times Books Ltd.
Justice, Noel D. 1987, "Stone Age Spear and Arrow Points", Indiana University Press.
Kaeppler, Adrienne L. 1978. "Artificial Curiosities", Bishop Museum Press.
Leakey, Richard E. 1994. "The Origin of Humankind", Basic Books.
Leakey, Richard E. 1992. "Origins Reconsidered", Doubleday.
Leakey, Richard E. 1981. "The Making of Mankind", E. P. Dutton.
Morse, Dan F. & Morse, Phyllis A. 1983. "Archaeology of the Central Miss. Valley", Academic Press.
Perino, Gregory 1985, "Selected preforms, Points and Knives of the North American Indian, Greg Perino.
Schick, D. Kathy & Toth, Nicholas 1993. "Making Silent Stones Speak", Simon and Schuster.
Struever, Stuart & Holton, Felicia Antonelli 1979. "Koster", Anchor Press/Doubleday.
Tattersall, Ian & Delson, Eric & Couvering, J. Van 1988. "Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory", Garland Pub.
Wormington, H.M. 1957 fifth addition. "Ancient Man in North America", Peerless Printing Company.

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