All of the pipes in this picture are made of catlinite from the ancient pipestone quarry site near Pipestone, Minnesota. They vary in age from 1450 to 1900 A.D. The oldest pipe is the disc pipe located at top center. It dates to the Late Mississippian period sometime between 1450 and 1640 A.D. A more recent pipe is the bison leg effigy pipe at lower left that dates to the latter half of the 1800's to 1900. Some of these pipes were found in either cultivated fields or drainage areas such as creeks and rivers. A few others were purchased directly from tribal members. The large Menominee pipe in the center was found in a tool box at an estate sale. Most of these pipes were collected in the north central states of Iowa, Wisconsin, Missouri and Illinois. They were made by Native American Indians who used them either for personal use or trade and by Europeans who used large numbers of them for the fur trade. Most of these pipes show signs of having been smoked and they also would have had pipe stems. They range in size from 1 5/16 inches (3.3 cm) to 10 1/2 inches (26.6 cm) long.